November 21, 2010

How Do Profoundly Oral Deaf People Learn Spoken Language and How to Read?

I always get asked by others, "How do profoundly deaf children learn spoken language and learn how to read it?" I never have a clear answer for this. Those I know who have learned to read, had a strong language base and did not necessarily learn phonetically or how to "sound out the words." I think a lot of it was sight word recognition with an understanding of how those words are put together, like how most people I know have learned to read. I know that it also helps if you are able to recognize most speech sounds through the use of amplification. 

My question would be, "How does a profoundly deaf person who was raised orally/aurally with little to no help from amplification, no sign language, no cued language or any type of visual language, learn spoken language and how to read?" I know they are out there. Perhaps someone can help answer this question for me. I would love to know what you did to help you learn spoken language and how to read it without much access to speech sounds or visual cues or language. Perhaps some of you did not necessarily focus on the phonetic aspect; perhaps there were a lot of memorization of sight words and then you learned spoken language through lip reading and years of intensive speech training.

I am mainly looking for those who are profoundly deaf (no CI) who grew up strictly Oral with no use of visual cues, cued speech, or sign language, to answer.

Thanks,

(e

40 comments:

  1. Good question, My hearing friend and I met a guy who is profoundly deaf like I am at the party and found out he is profoundly deaf . He don't sign but speak very good. I am envy of him do that. I asked him how come he did not know sign but speak good. He told me he grew up in isolated area like in very small town in the country where there are no deaf school . His parent did not know anything about deaf culture and school His parent push him to learn lip reading extremely trained and send to a hearing school. I think it was tough but he is now around my age. He speak very good as my hearing friend listened his conversation.

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    1. Lip reading is fundamental. my brother was extremely hard of hearing and we never used sign language but from the time he was a baby we played lip reading games..... It is the key i believe. Also deafpeople can have sound amplified and they feel the vibrations of sound my brother all the time used to feel my throat when I wuld talk so he could do the same and he would also feel his throat and see if it was the same. Good memories <3

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  2. Profoundly deaf can have many levels of meaning.

    I had a friend who had the same exact audiogram as mine, who started wearing hearing aids the same age as I did, and went through similar oral or mainstream schools and had supplementary tutoring. However:
    --she could use a telephone using the T-switch on her hearing aids. I never could even distinguish gross sounds.
    --she went to public schools all her life. I did up to the 6th grade before entering a school for the deaf.
    --she did not go to college. She failed the entrance exams and went to a business school instead. I went through college and graduated.
    --we both learned ASL late in our youth and became fluent in our twenties. Her ASL retained the "hard of hearing" accent, mine adapted to several different dialects.
    --We both like to read, but at different levels. She reads popular romance novels, I read sagas spanning historical events, several generations of families, and many characters.
    --Our intelligence tests have similar scores. Go figure.

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  3. I hope you don't mind me sharing my experience, despite using SEE. I don't think SEE contributed as much as other factors did. Keep in mind that what worked for me may not work for others.

    First, my parents worked with me daily on speech, reading, and other skills. When we were in the car, when I was being potty trained, when we were waiting in line at McDonald's, my mother would go over speech words or we would read a book together. It wasn't just with my parents. When I was sitting on the bus, waiting for other kids to be picked up, I would read my book to the bus driver.

    Even when I was six months old, my mother started working with me on mouth movements; licking my upper lip, making smacking noises, and copying facial expressions.

    I started preschool at the age of 2. My mother used SEE with me. While SEE is not a language, I do think it helped fill in the gaps of what I was missing. I learned ASL through friends later on. When I was tested for Kindergarten, I tested at the 2nd grade reading level. I was mainstreamed, and had to move to the first grade classroom for reading. I don't really remember learning to read or speak. The majority of it happened before I was five. I had hearing aids to help me hear, but everything sounded like Charlie Brown's teacher (wah wah wah wah wah).

    Despite my successes with speech and reading, my life was far from perfect. I experienced bullying, depression, and identity issues.

    I've met many deaf individuals, and I can't really recall anyone who grew up oral without some kind of assistive listening device or some kind of visual cues. Even those without a recognized visual system perhaps used some kind of home signs or gestures.

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  4. Anonymous,

    Thank you for sharing your story. Sounds like you had a dedicated family who cared about you and supported the best way they can.

    (e

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  5. At age 2 when my severe/ profound hearing loss was discovered, I was placed in a speech/ hearing clinic. I picked up lip reading very quickly and thru the clinic's loop system I was able to connect sounds of vowels and syllable combinations to what I was lipreading. I also had intensive one-on-one sessions with a speech therapist as a youngster. I didn't get hearing aids 'til I was 4, when my parents could afford them. The clinic also provided English reading and writing lessons, and I was doing both by age 5. Reading helped me to understand sentence structure and grammar. I attended public K-12 schools from first grade on and am a college graduate. I can hear on a phone with t-coil and no, I don't use Captel.

    What also may have helped my comprehension was that my dad had a compelling, deep voice and he told interesting stories, peppered with idioms of country life as he grew up on a farm. I had three hearing sibs as well, so I had a lot of practice.

    Never learned sign language 'til I was well into my career and already had run two businesses of my own. Better late than never, but I'll never be fluent in it.

    Ann_C

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  6. So, what you are saying Ann_C is that an amplification device (loop system), speech therapy, reading and writing lessons--all provided by the speech/hearing clinic played a big factor, not to mention your wonderful father with his deep voice immersing you in language in interesting ways.

    Sounds as if support from family is important. Even though you did not have sign language or some sort of visual language system growing up, you were able to learn spoken English and to read just as well.

    Thank you for sharing,

    (e

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  7. Hello All,

    I am a speech therapist at a high school in New York. I really enjoyed reading this blog topic and all of the wonderful and informative comments. I noticed that some of you mentioned intensive speech therapy as one of the factors which aided in your clear speech. Can any of you tell me some techniques that your therapists used that really helped you? I am always on the lookout for new techniques that will help my students speak as clearly as possible.

    Thanks!

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    Replies
    1. I'm both deaf and hard of hearing. I've spent years with speech therapy and I hated it haha, but I have to say that it was the best thing that ever happened to me! My speech is clear but the tone will give away the fact that I am deaf. What my speech therapist would do, she would constantly make me read sentences that had 's', 'ch', and 'st' in them. (those were the ones I had the most trouble pronouncing). Eventually, I got it! So repetition is the key and so is patience!

      Source
      11 years of intense speech therapy :)

      P.S- I am really glad you are a speech therapist! You will make a difference in someone's life

      Delete
  8. me? yes i speak very clearly even over the phone conversation. i cannot hear and cannot understand words. how did i get good speech when i never hear a sound. i had very good training and positive encouragement with sense of accomplishment. i did not get punished when i failed. the teachers always say 'hmm, let me try something else and see if it works...' when i get it done right then i say 'oh thats it. i get it..'
    .
    does that answer to your question?

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  9. To Anonymous speech therapist,

    I had an excellent speech therapist who used "props" to help a young child understand silent consonants, the ones many severe-profound deaf children often miss. She used a feather to illustrate the "f" letter, for example, as she pronounced f, she would exhale onto the feather. She would also put the child's hand on her throat to sense the vibrations of her voice as she spoke so the child could understand spoken syllables. Even though I couldn't hear during individual therapy sessions, I could detect differences in vibration for different sounds. Of course, when I did get the hearing aids at age 4 and could hear myself speak, the learning curve went up exponentially and much faster.

    I'm sure speech therapy has changed a great deal in the years since.

    Ann_C

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  10. I have a profound bilateral, sensinueral hearing loss (profoundly deaf in both ears) since shortly after birth, cause unknown. I grew up in a hearing family. I grew up in the Washington D.C. area, but my parents knew about Gallaudet and the resources that they have for deaf children. They wanted me to learn their primary language and found a solution. A solution that wasn't easy for them and for me, but it has paid the greatest rewards. I had intensive auditory and speech training at home. My parents took workshop from a well-known speech pathologist, Helen Beebe in Pennsylvania when I was three years old. I remembered her very vividly because she was an inspiring teacher and made it more fun and challenging. My parents incorporated her methods in our family life. She made a huge difference in my success. She had high expectations for profoundly deaf children and believed that they have the potential to speak and hear well with the maximum use of the hearing aid or any other hearing device. I learned to read and write after I have learned to read and hear sounds, but at the age of 10, I wasn't able to keep up with my hearing peers on comprehension and language skills. My parents started researching again to find tools to help me improve these skills which is Cued Language. I've used Cued Language for over 30 years, and this, too, has made a huge difference. ASL is not a tool to improve the English language because ASL is a foreign language similar to any other spoken foreign language. In order to be fluent with any foreign language including ASL, we need to be in a culture where we can get exposure from the language. So, I get most of the exposure from my family's language by using visual tools like Cued Language. There are over 100 Cued Languages in the world. If I learn their Cued Language in other countries, I would get the exposure from their own spoken language. This is an amazing tool to learn any spoken language! It has been proven that this method has helped many deaf children with spoken language including reading, writing, and comprehending if it is used consistently at home and at school. Deaf children are effected by the choice parents make for their academic and social outcome.

    I had the cochlear implant 10 years ago because my hearing was declining fast from the hearing aid. All these years, I only had 40% of my hearing from the hearing aid, and hearing speech was always a struggle. With the implant, I hear 95%! I am a strong advocate of cochlear implant for profoundly deaf children and it gives them the best access to spoken language.

    Despite the controversy and cultural differences, I feel it is critical to adapt to the majority use of language and still maintain customs at home. Each of us have obstacles in our lifetime. I will always be an outcast in both worlds because of my differences, but I always maintain my adversity in a humble way so others can see hope and possibilities.

    Alisa

    aweidenheimer@mac.com

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  11. I am in my early 50's and the way I was taught to speak was weekly speech classes throughout elementary school. I was taught lip reading and sound formation and word formation. The speech therapist would sometimes use peanut butter or sugar and mark the inside of my mouth to help me figure out where my tongue should be when making a particular sound. Also, some sounds generate vibration and air, and I would practice these sounds. The letters or letter combinations that are difficult for profoundly deaf people are r, s, ch, sh, or any word that does not follow the rules for example ch is hard like chicken, but sometimes it is soft like parachute. Unless I knew the correct pronounciation of parachute I would probably pronounce it with a hard ch. So I do pronounce many words incorrectly and unless someone tells me I keep doing it. Honestly, I would want someone to tell me instead of let me go on talking that way. For example I would say Albaturkey, New Mexico cause thats what it sounds like to me. Finally someone corrected me. I also use to say sussessful(successful) with s's for the two c's. My daughter finally told me to say sickessful or something like that. So help deaf people by helping them pronounce correctly, we've been corrected all our lives so we don't take it personally when people correct us. At least I don't.

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  12. I have my son Adrian who is profoundly deaf and he is wearing hearing aids.He is now 13 years old.At school as he is learning like the normal main streams of other "normal" schools for the exams, he needs to learn both English and French languages. He has difficulty to cope with both languages. He lip reads a lot and also use visual clues for his speech. Can someone help us.

    Adrian Father, Alain

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    1. Hello Alain, This is Austin, i am profoundly deaf and i found that using a system called typewell has helped my learning experience temendously. Typewell is a system that every school is required by federal law to offer to hearing impaired students. Basically someone is sitting in the back of the classroom with a laptop typing meaning for meaning what every person in the room is saying, some type word for word depending on what is requested by the student. These notes will automatically appear on the students computer screen in class as it is being typed. The notes are then sent to the student via email that same night. I found this exceptionally helpful. My classroom performnace went from a B-C student to almost straight A's. The system is paid for by the school system. The school system recieves a yearly sum of money in disability grants from thhe state. Please keep in mind i am from Ohio and some states have different disability laws. Please take the time to set this system up for your son Adrian. I garantee that Adrian will be excelling academically. I wish you and your son the best of luck. (keep fighting)

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  13. Hi Alain! I am a profoundly deaf educator , teaching in a deaf school in S.A where children come to school severely language delayed. The medium of instruction is S.L and English through the written word. However as I myself never went to a school for the deaf (lost my hearing age 9) I had to learn to lipread and rely on what residual hearing I had maximized by a hearing aid. It IS tough having to lip read all day even with auditory support. I could see how my learners were struggling having no language whatsoever so looked for a visual support to enhance the English spoken language needed to effectively tackle written and read tasks and came across a system called Cued Speech - which enables any language to be cued visually to eliminate the stress and confusion lip reading causes - and wish I had had it during my own school years and subsequent tertiary education .... try Cued English and Cued French - both are offered in France and England....I can tell you that it works! Lynette

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  14. Hello, I am one of the few children that grew up with profound that can speak very clear English. I have been profoundly deaf since birth. Many doctors first said that their was nothing they could do for me, I would never learn to speak. Well, one doctor named Gregory Lowe of Fort Wayne Indiana broke away from the hospital and started his private practice. That same doctor whom I am still with today fitted me with my first hearing aids in 1993. 1 month after I was born. Lowe has sacrificed so much that he gives me free visits. He also went back to school to get three doctorates degrees to keep up with the latest and greatest of technology. Lowe also allowed my parents that were near bankruptcy make payments on my hearing aids for the rest of their life if needed. Family has been the most helpful spending every extra minute of their lives helping learn to speak clearly and become an almost normal human being. I am 18 and currently study at Bowling Green State University in Ohio. Almost no one realizes that I am deaf. I speak so clear that I am viewed as an average every day student. Only when I take out my Hearing aids or explain to people do people realize I an am completely deaf. The key to learning to speak in a deaf world is family, and doctors who take pride in what they do, helping those who cannot help themselves with a disability that is impossible to cope with alone. I do use a lot of lip reading, but it took years to learn to do this it is not an instant thing. I didn’t learn to lip read until about 12 years old. Yes there are people out there who speak almost perfectly normal. We just don’t see them that often. My doctor, Gregory Lowe explained in one of his speeches a few years ago that I am probably one out of several million people who speaks normal for the severity of my hearing loss. The greatest people are those who walk among us as unnoticed disabled humans.

    Thank you for the question, Austin

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  15. I am another one who is profoundly deaf and also speaks quite clearly. I'm in my late 30s and few people in my life even realize that I am deaf until I tell them. Even with my hearing aids visible, most people think I just "have a little trouble hearing."

    I was probably born hearing -- though no one knows for sure but considering the clarity of my speech, it's likely I could hear some speech when I was very young. At the age of three, I had a severe ear infection. During treatment, doctors realized I had a severe hearing loss. I hadn't spoken yet at that age but I was already reading some. Due to a range of factors (poverty,cultural differences, etc.), I did not receive a hearing aid or any other support so I learned to lipread almost from birth. I didn't speak much at all until I was five or so. My earliest school years in pre-K and kindergarten were spent in a special education class even though I was a bit precocious in having learned to read and write earlier than most kids. In the late 70s when I grew up it would not have been unusual for a deaf kid to end up in special ed though, regardless of one's actual intellectual abilities. I learned some ASL in the special ed class. Beginning with elementary school, I was mainstreamed into a regular hearing class in a public school, where I didn't use any ASL and relied instead on lipreading. I spoke very little and I became an avid reader and learned the English language primarily through reading and writing. When I did speak, teachers corrected my pronunciation constantly and I spent many hours after school learning to correctly pronounce words; my mother aided me in this as well. As a child, I used to spent hours cuddled up with my mother, "listening" to her speak with my head on her chest. I think this is how I picked up the vibrations of sounds and began associating them with specific words.

    Only in my twenties did I begin to learn ASL again, though I am far from fluent. Finally in my 30s I started to wear hearing aids, but I still can't discern speech very well at all. The hearing aids only help with some environmental sounds, like hearing an ambulance coming down the street when I'm driving. So I'm building up my ASL skills again if only to give my eyes a rest from all the speechreading. It's exhausting and also wildly inaccurate at times.

    Ironically, all those years of practicing pronunciation after school has made my speech is so clear that many people don't realize I'm deaf; they just think I have a "unique" accent.

    So in answer to your original question e), I learned English through reading first, then learned how to pronounce words. I can hear my own voice some, and I can sometimes hear the sounds that come out of other people's mouths (particularly men with deep booming voices) but I cannot understand those sounds as words. I must have been able to parse some basic English sounds that stuck with me even though I couldn't really hear the difference between what I was saying and what other people were saying. Also, my father is deaf, my mother and sister are hard-of-hearing, and at least one of my grandparents was deaf. Yet none of them wore hearing aids or learned ASL. So within the context of my family, I think we probably had some unique to us but ultimately successful means of communication that allowed me to grow up speaking and not even realizing how deaf I was until I was mainstreamed.

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  16. Wow, thank you for sharing. :) It sounds as if you received a lot of support from your family. Funny how you don't really realized or think of yourself as deaf or having some disability until you are mainstreamed or within the general population. With people who know me, I am usually not constantly reminded that I am hard of hearing, but out in mainstreamed environments I am reminded, constantly.

    But, I have to ask how did you learn how to read without hearing the words or sign language?

    I am still trying to figure out how the heck I was able to learn how to read when I was three years old, without any formal training. I think it has a lot to do with the fact that my mother read to me every night before I went to bed. I would listen to her read and just learned which words were which through listening and looking at the words, I suppose.

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    Replies
    1. Kids can often pick up reading by context - eg in a picture book, they might notice that the word 'cat' occurs on pages with pictures of cats, or they might learn to recognize the logo representing their favourite snack. And the more words you can read, the easier it gets to recognize new words from context.
      Plus, kids are little language sponges. They're wired to figure out how language works way better than any adult can.

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  17. Hi (e. I'm not sure exactly how it works. I couldn't hear full words but I could hear some sounds, mostly vowels. I also had lots of children's books filled with pictures, so I think I must have been associating certain configurations of letters with certain images first, and then only making the association with sounds later. For instance, as an adult now I can hear "a" sounds as in cat, hat, or pat. But I can't tell the difference between those three words when they're spoken to me. I think as a 3 year old, I figured out (through pictures, through pointing, etc.) the difference between the word "cat" and the word "hat" but it was a while before I figured out that those two words sounded different. It makes sense to me that being deaf, I would have intuitively learned visually first rather than orally, as hearing children do. But then again, I don't know if this is actually true or not. Now I'm curious to find out!

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    1. Hello this is Austin from September 14, 2012. It is a theory that those who are deaf have enhanced abilities in their other senses such as eyesight and smell. It is not true. The only thing that is true in those who are deaf, their senses are much more sensitive and recognized by the individual. The reason for this is that they rely on their others senses to perform difficult everyday tasks that hearing individuals find easy. Senses are not supernatured just because you are deaf, but because you recognize and rely on those senses more than the average hearing person.

      Have any more questions, please feel free to ask.
      Thank you - Austin

      Delete
  18. I was born in New York City in 1979, after apparently having been one of the 57 cases of congenital rubella in the country that year (judging from a government report on that mini "epidemic"t). I was fortunate to have a schoolteacher focused on special education for a mom. I might have been diagnosed at about 1 year old (or was it 2?), but there was at least one early misstep. (One doctor misdiagnosed me as autistic.) Anyhow, another claimed that I would never be able to speak, and a third recommended Helen Beebe. So off we went to Beebe's center. (I don't remember this, as this happened when I was very little. It is on the record in notebooks we kept of my early education, however.) My parents contacted what was then the New York League for the Hard of Hearing, and I remember the waiting room in the old building, with its series of tuning forks. (This organization has since moved from its roost between Midtown and Downtown Manhattan to a new place below Wall Street, and renamed itself the Center(s) for Hearing and Communication.)

    The League had among its staff a wonderful and engaging teacher named Carol Smith, who taught speech. I had some residual hearing and this was amplified with powerful hearing aids, first worn on my chest in what was becoming an old-school style, even then. Then we switched to behind the ear hearing aids. I didn't have implants until my thirties, and even then, only after my residual hearing in one of my ears finally gave way.

    What I recall of the League and nursery school (some of it from original memory and some from videotapes) was that they involved group activities, such as singing and dancing. ("Put your right foot in, take your right foot out, and do the hokey pokey and dance all about!")

    Evident on the videotapes, too, is the fact that I already had a collection of children's books before kindergarten. (I could read at an early age, perhaps as early as 3 or 4 years old.) I suspect that some pretty intensive one-on-one education occurred during my first few years (hinted at in the notebooks), involving Carol Smith and my parents. It was probably at some point during that time that I somehow learned to associate writing with objects. "Sesame Street", which I grew up watching, had books related to it. At least one was an educational guide for parents, which my parents had ("Learn at Home the Sesame Street Way").

    Some of my early education may have also been self education, as some of my earliest speech apparently involved me talking to myself in my room (I suppose I didn't like blathering to other people at first, LOL). I quickly took a liking to children's books, and I got addicted to books (and I don't believe I ever kicked that habit!) All this by kindergarten. Heh.

    This is why I'm puzzled by deaf/HOH kids that start reading nicely but then fall behind in reading ability at around the age of ten. (I don't recall any corresponding problem in my past. I was in a talented and gifted class in the fifth and sixth grades, so evidently I was doing ok in reading and writing back then...) What are they doing, and how are the oralists communicating, if not through reading and writing? By poorly understood speech? Through art, maybe? And what exactly do those deaf oralists do for fun, anyhow?

    I recall numerous times when I was taken out of class in elementary school and given one-on-one education, and this was done on a regular basis. The sessions were pretty friendly, and I was often encouraged to be creative. This may have also contributed to my love for the written word. Having a ton of newspapers didn't hurt, either.

    So, there you have it- intensive, specialized education and an early diagnosis. And try teaching reading concurrently with speech. (Or shortly after teaching speech.) You just might wind up with a literary deaf child. :)

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  19. (e - I am not quite a profoundly deaf person but have a borderline severe/profound hearing loss - around 87 dB in both ears. I was born with this as my mother had rubella during pregnancy. I was very fortunate in that my parents were on the lookout for problems because they were aware of the consequences of rubella. I was diagnosed with the hearing loss when I was 6 months old and fitted with hearing aids. My parents, both teachers, wanted to find what they felt was the most appropriate method for me, and chose Cued Speech. I was intensively trained in Cued Speech till I was 3 years old, by then my speech was the same as other children's. I should mention the fact that my mother and father both worked extremely hard to get such a good outcome for me. I was also very fortunate that they were both teachers and I got early diagnosis and word hearing aids at a very young age. I was also an incredibly dedicated reader - which I also think helped me with written English. I have quite good speech now, and people can't really tell that I am deaf unless they see my hearing aids, which can be a blessing and a curse sometimes! Thanks for sharing your experiences about being open to all the different communication options out there for deaf people!

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  20. Sorry I missed a word in the previous post and made a spelling mistake : "I got an early diagnosis and wore hearing aids at a very young age".

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  21. How do Gallaudet University professors teach new foreign languages like Spanish or French to their profoundly deaf or hard of hearing students? Do the students learn through reading and writing instead of learning spoken language?

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  22. I know you don't a want a person with CI to talk about how they learned to read and all, but I am a sixteen years old and I use a CI. I learned hot to talk and listen by intensive speech therapy, but as for reading I already knew how to read before entering kindergarten. This was due to growing up watching closed-captioning on t.v. which led me to learn how to read.

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